Hong Kong’s Many Peoples – And Their Regional Roots

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By Vaudine England

This section attempts to combine a global perspective on Hong Kong to a now established understanding of Hong Kong history, to look more closely at the many varied peoples of Hong Kong and its neighbourhood.

Reading around the issues provides many questions to be answered with regard to Hong Kong: how did settler and/or expatriate life in Hong Kong compare to that of Shanghai and other Treaty Ports; were personalities different or strictures of race and class and if so, how; did being a colony rather than a mere treaty port produce a different matrix of security/insecurity, identity/lack of identity or other differences; were definitions of Britishness the same across all foreign settlements or was Hong Kong unique, and what did that mean for other ‘Others’, such as those of separate classes, races or mixtures thereof.


Bickers, Robert. Settlers and Expatriates: Britons over the Seas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

Bickers, Robert. Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism 1900-49. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999. This draws a clear line between ‘settlers’ and ‘expatriates’ in a geography almost entirely focused on Shanghai – not Hong Kong – thus on informal empire: the International Settlement, the concessions, and the variations of treaty port settlements. ‘Settlers’ are lower-middle class Britons and non-Western ‘British people’ (including Parsees, Jews, Eurasians), who ran the Shanghai Municipal Council, staffed the Police, ran utilities, and created a self-defined community on the China Coast for generations. One chapter examines what ideas of China these people would have had before they left Britain for the East. Bickers then details the intense socialisation process each new recruit went through on landing in Shanghai – being met by a longer-term settler, introduced to the small and exclusively Western social scene, the club, the sport, the horse-racing, the tiny and in his view self-satisfied world of people who believed they had a right to be in China, who developed their own history of being there, and felt entitled to stay there no matter what. He places the people who ran Jardines, Swires and the other big hongs as ‘expatriates’, a hard line to hold as of course some expatriates were also settlers. Settlers are those who stayed in the East, who saw home as being in China, who were the (mostly western) compradores of international trade, and who therefore had a stake in that grey zone status continuing.

His narrative traces how the 1925 shooting of Chinese in Shanghai woke London up to the fact that these settlers had developed a life of their own which was not necessarily in line with London’s interests which were then (and are today) all about trade with Peking. London set about demolishing the grey zones, ending various treaty port arrangements, trying to make clear what was a colony and what was not – all this long before world war two. So ‘settlers’ were already having to see Hong Kong as their last hope, before the war and before the communist victory.

Bickers, Robert. Empire Made Me: An Englishman Adrift in Shanghai. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, and Columbia University Press, 2003. (Winner of the 2004 AHA Forkosch Prize for post-1945 British and British Imperial History.) This dives deeply into the life of one man, Tinkler, who was a policeman in Shanghai and met a shaky end. He is a classic example of a Poor White, those who did not run the hongs, but whose lives were shaped by the opportunities of empire. Bickers’ descriptions of ‘settler’ culture are sadly disparaging – the narrow-minded racism, petty shifts for status, being in China not for China but for themselves, etc.

Bickers, Robert and Christian Henriot. New Frontiers: Imperialism’s New Communities in East Asia 1842-1953. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000. This important contribution includes the following chapters:
1. Introduction by Bickers and Henriot
2. Colonialism ‘In a Chinese Atmosphere’: The Caldwell Affair and the Perils of Collaboration in Early Colonial Hong Kong by Christopher Munn
3. Marginal Westerners in Shanghai: The Baghdadi Jewish Community, 1845-1931 by Chiara Betta
4. Indian Communities in China, c.1842-1949 by Claude Markovits
5. Foreigners or Outsiders? Westerners and Chinese Christians in Chongqing, 1870s-1900 by Judith Wyman
6. The Japanese and the Jews: A Comparative Analysis of Their Communities in Harbin, 1898-1930 by Joshua A. Fogel
7. Japanese Colonial citizenship in treaty port China: the location of Koreans and Taiwanese in the Imperial Order by Barbara J. Brooks
8. Denied and Besieged: The Japanese Community of Korea, 1876-1945 by Alain Delissen
9. ‘Little Japan’ in Shanghai: An Insulated Community, 1875-1945 by Christian Henriot
10. Who Were the Shanghai Municipal Police, and Why Were They There? The British Recruits of 1919 by Robert Bickers
11. The Russian Diaspora Community in Shanghai by Marcia R. Ristaino
12. In Search of Identity: The German Community in Shanghai, 1933-1945 by Francoise Kreissler
13. The Shanghai American Community, 1937-1949 by Mark F. Wilkinson
14. Afterword: A Colonial World by John Darwin

Allen N.J., Gombrich R.F., Raychaudhuri T., and Rizvi G., general eds. Oxford University Papers on India, Volume I, Part 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Chapter 3: ‘Eurasians Under British Rule’, by Richard Symonds, pp. 28-42.
This focuses on Anglo-Indians and compares their experience to that if Dutch-Indonesians. It also includes the immortal line: ‘It is interesting that the British, themselves hybrids, should have placed so much emphasis on race in the style of rule’, p. 41 (emphasis added).

Chan Candy Yik-yi, ed. Foreign Communities in Hong Kong 1840s-1950s. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. This includes chapters on the 19th century German Community (by Ricardo K.S. Mak), the Catholic Church between the Two World Wars (by Cindy Chu), the Making of a Japanese Community in the Prewar Period (by Benjamin Wai-ming Ng), American ‘China Hands’ in the 1950s (by Chi-kwan Mark) and Migrants from India and Their Relations with British and Chinese Residents (by Caroline Pluss). Three other chapters deal with the early British community, British attitudes towards Hong Kong, and Stanley Prisoner of War Camp.

FORTHCOMING FROM DR SINN: from a Workshop she hosted in January 2012, on Multicultural Encounters in Hong Kong. Contributions include:
1. Western Firms and Chinese Compradors: The Case of Jebsen & Co. and Chau Yue Ting by Bert Becker (HKU History Dept.)
2. The Making of Accomplished Women: English Education for Girls, 1900s-1940s by Patricia Chiu (HKU History Dept.)
3. A Minority in the Margins (1860s-1960s) by Vicky Lee (Baptist University, Hong Kong)
4. Trouble in Fairyland: Ministering Children and Imperial Childhoods by David Pomfret (HKU History Dept.)
5. Local Society, Colonial Government and the Catholic Church in the Early Administration of the New Territories by Kentaro Matsubara (Law Department, University of Tokyo)
6. A Clone of Canton: the Origins of Pre-war Hong Kong Urban Culture by May Bo Ching (Sun Yat-sen University History Dept.)
7. More Brown than Pale: Carvalho Yeo and the 1928 Hong Kong Treasury Swindle by Christopher Munn (then of Hong Kong University Press and the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences, HKU)
8. War in the Juke-Box Jungle: American GIs and Hong Kong Identity by Peter Hamilton (PhD, University of Texas, Austin, USA)
9. Cathay’s New World: Transpacific Flows in Hong Kong Film by Staci Ford (HKU History Dept./American Studies)
10. Japanese Ramen with a Chinese Twist – Instant Noodles and their Localization Efforts in Hong Kong by Yoshiko Nakano (HK University, Japanese Studies Dept.)


Barr, Pat. To China With Love, The Lives and Times of Protestant Missionaries in China 1860-1900. London: Secker & Warburg, 1972.

Barr, Pat. The Coming of the Barbarians, A Story of Western Settlement in Japan 1853-1870. London: Readers Union/Macmillan, 1967.

Blusse, Leonard. Bitter Bonds, A Colonial Divorce Drama of the 17th Century. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publication, 2002. About a divorce between a Japanese/Eurasian widow and failed Dutch businessman Bitter, the fortune hunter.

Blusse, Leonard. Visible Cities: Canton, Nagasaki and Batavia and the Coming of the Americans. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Blusse, Leonard. Strange Company: Chinese Settlers, Mestizo Women and the Dutch in VOC Batavia. Dordrecht: KITLV (Krononklijk Instituut Voor Taal Land en Volkenkunde), 1986.

Blake, Myrna L. Kampong Eurasians in Singapore. Thesis, University of Singapore, 1973.

Breitung, Werner. ‘A Tale of Two Borders – Separation and Exchange: Macao and Hong Kong’s Borders with the Mainland’. Review of Culture 9 (2004), 7-17.

Breitung, Werner. ‘Living With Borders – Overcoming Borders’ Review of Culture 9 (2004), 18-29.

Buck, Pearl S. Letter from Peking. London: Pan Books, 1959. (First published in 1957 by Methuen & Co.). A fictional drama of racial intermarriage.

Butcher, John G. The British in Malaya 1880-1941: The Social History of a European Community in Colonial South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Cernea, Ruth Fredman. Almost Englishmen: Baghdadi Jews in British Burma. Lexington Books, 2006.

Cheng, Dr Irene. Intercultural Reminiscences. Hong Kong: David C. Lam Institute for East-West Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1997. These personal thoughts and memories come from an offspring of the famous (Eurasian) Hotung clan.

da Costa Morais, Isabel Maria. Creolised and Colonised: The History and Future of the Macanese and Mozambican Chinese. PhD Thesis, University of Hong Kong, 2003.

Crabb, C.H. Malaya’s Eurasians: An Opinion. Singapore: D. Moore, 1960.

Cushman, Jennifer and Wang Gungwu, eds. The Changing Identities of Chinese in Southeast Asia. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1988.

Dikotter, Frank, Lars Laaman, and Zhou Xun. Narcotic Culture, A History of Drugs in China. London: Hurst & Company, 2004.

Erni, John Nguyet and Leung Lisa Yuk-ming. Understanding South Asian Minorities in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2014.

Faure, David. Colonialism & the Hong Kong Mentality. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 2003. HK 320.95125 F26

Frost, Mark Ravinder, and Yu-Mei Balasingamchow. Singapore, A Biography. Editions Didier Millet/National Museum of Singapore, 2009. A fascinating discovery of a place through far larger spectrums of time and personalities than standard histories usually evoke. Frost explores the rich cosmopolitanism of Singapore’s past and present, providing a surprisingly rich level of new data, offering a model to other new histories.

Hampton, Mark and Carol C. L. Tsang. ‘Colonial Legacies and Internationalisation:  British History in Contemporary Hong Kong’.  Twentieth Century British History 23:4 (2012), 563-574.

Hampton, Mark. ‘Projecting Britishness to Hong Kong:  The British Council and Hong Kong House, 1950s-1970s’. Historical Research 85 (November 2012), 691-709.

Hao Yen-p’ing. The Commercial Revolution in 19th Century China – The Rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capitalism. California: University of California Press, 1986.

Hao Yen-p’ing. The Comprador in 19th Century China: Bridge Between East and West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.

Hoe, Susanna. Chinese Footprints, Exploring Women’s History in China, Hong Kong and Macau. Hong Kong: Roundhouse Publications (Asia), 1996.

Hyam, Ronald. ‘Concubinage and the Colonial Service: the Crew Circular’. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 3 (1986), 170-186.

Hyam, Ronald. Empire and Sexual Opportunity, in Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, No 3 (1986), 34-90.

Hyam, Ronald. Understanding the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Just eight Index entries refer to Hong Kong, but Hyam looks at sexuality in the empire, including here his thoughts on Concubinage and the Colonial Service (pp. 417-440), and considers the practice of imperial historians.

Hyde, Francis E. Far Eastern Trade 1860-1914. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1973.

Jasanoff, Maya. Edge of Empire: Lives, Culture and Conquest in the East 1750-1850. Vintage; Reprint September 2006. Jasanoff challenges the idea that the British Empire imposed its own culture on its colonies, arguing the empire thrived because it was able to “find ways of accommodating difference”. As evidence, she traces the history of objects collected in India and Egypt by “border-crossers”: diplomats and soldiers, “aristocrats and Grand Tourists”… profiling those who were fuelled to collect by the need for reinvention and pursuit of social status and wealth.

Kam Louie, ed. Hong Kong Culture – Word and Image. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.

Law Wing Sang. Collaborative Colonial Power – The Making of the Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. Chapters:
Social Fabric of Collaborative Colonialism; Cultural Coloniality, The English Language and Schooling; Pedagogy of Imperialism, Indirect Rule and HKU; Double Identity of Colonial Intelligentsia, Ho Kai; Chinese Cultural Nationalism and Southern Localism; Cultural Cold War and the Disaporic Nation; Indigenizing Colonial Power and the Return to China; Northbound Colonialism, Reinventing Hong Kong Chinese.

Lo Hsiang-Lin. Hong Kong and Western Cultures. Tokyo: East West Center Honolulu Press/The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies Tokyo, 1963.

Lui Tai Lok. ‘Bringing Class Back In: China Re-stratified’. Critical Asian Studies 37:3 (2005), 473-480.

Lui Tai Lok and Alan Smart. ‘Learning From Civil Unrest: State/Society Relations in Hong Kong Before and After the 1967 Disturbances’. In Robert Bickers and Ray Yep, eds. May Days in Hong Kong: Riots and Emergency in 1967. Hong Kong: Hong KongUniversity Press, 2009.

Lui Tai Lok, G. Mathews, and E. Ma. Hong Kong, China: Learning to Belong to a Nation. London: Routledge, 2008.

Lui Tai Lok and Stephen Chiu. ‘Governance Crisis in Post-1997 Hong Kong: A Political Economy Perspective’. The China Review, 7:2 (2007), 1-34.

Lui Tai Lok and Stephen Chiu. Hong Kong: Becoming a Chinese Global City. London: Routledge, 2009.

Lui Tai Lok and Stephen Chiu. ‘Testing the Global City-Social Polarization Thesis: Hong Kong Since the 1990s’. Urban Studies 41:10 (2004), 1863-1888.

Mark, Chi-kwan. Hong Kong and the Cold War: Anglo-American Relations, 1949-1957. Oxford: Clarendon, 2004.

Mark Chi-kwan. ‘Defence or Decolonization? Britain the US and the Hong Kong Question in 1957’. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 33:1 (January 2005), 51-72.

Markovita, Claude. The Global World of Indian Merchants 1750-1947, Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Mills, Lennox A. British Rule in Eastern Asia: A Study of Contemporary Government and Economic Development in British Malaya and Hong Kong. London: Oxford University Press, 1942.

New, Christopher. Gage Street Courtesan (fictional representation of a German/Jewish prostitute in HK’s demimonde). Hong Kong: Earnshaw Books, 2012.

O’Connor, Paul. Islam in Hong Kong, Muslims and Everyday Life in China’s World City. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2012.

Pan, Lynn. Sons of the Yellow Emperor: A History of the Chinese Diaspora. ‪Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1990.

Pan, Lynn. The Encyclopaedia of the Chinese Overseas. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1999.

Peckham, Robert. ‘Infective Economies: Empire, Panic and the Business of Disease’. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 41:2 (2013), 211-237.
ALSO: Peckham, Robert. ‘Diseasing the City: Colonial Noir and the Ruins of Modernity’. Fast Capitalism 8:1 (2011).
ALSO: Peckham, Robert. ‘Matshed Laboratory: Colonies, Cultures, and Bacteriology’. In Robert Peckham and David M. Pomfret, eds. Imperial Contagions: Medicine, Hygiene, and Cultures of Planning in Asia, Hong Kong University Press, 2013.

Poon Shuk-wah. ‘Dogs and British Colonialism: The Contested Ban on Eating Dogs in Colonial Hong Kong’. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 42:2(December 2013), 308-318.

Riemenschnitter, Andrea and Madsen, Deborah eds. Diasporic Histories – Cultural Archives of Chinese Transnationalism. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. Section Headings are: Diasporic Nationalism, Historical Legacies, and, Re-storying Diaspora.

Schenkuizen, Marguerite. Memoirs of an Indo woman: Twentieth Century Life in the East Indies and Abroad. Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1993.

Siu, Helen F., ed. Merchants’ Daughters – Women, Commerce, and Regional Culture in South China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.

Smart, Alan. Making Room: Squatter Clearance in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: HKU Centre of Asian Studies, 1992.

Smith, Carl T. and Paul A. Van Dyke. ‘Muslims in the Pearl River Delta 1700-1930’. Review of Culture, International Edition 10 (April 2004), 6-15.

Thompson, Virginia, and Adloff, Richard. Minority Problems in Southeast Asia. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1955. (Chapter 3: Indigenous Minorities – The Eurasians.)

Tripathi, Dwijendra, ed. Business Communities of India, A Historical Perspective. Ahmedabad: Business History Archives and Museum, 1984.

Van de Veur, Paul W. The Eurasians of Indonesia: A Political-Historical Bibliography. Ithaca: Modern Indonesia Project, Cornell University, 1971.

Van Dyke, Paul A. Merchants of Canton and Macao – Politics and Strategies in Eighteenth Century Chinese Trade. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.

Van Dyke, Paul A. The Canton Trade, Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong University Press, Published in conjunction with the Instituto Cultural do Governo da RAE de Macau, 2005.

Van Dyke, Paul A. ‘The Yan Family, Merchants of Canton 1734-1780’. Review of Culture, International Edition 9 (2004).

Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. Strangers at the Gate, Social Disorder in South China, 1839-1861. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.

Ward, Robert. Asia for the Asiatics? The Techniques of Japanese Occupation. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1945. An American consular official, Ward witnessed the fall of Hong Kong and the imposition of the Japanese system for organizing conquered territory and peoples. Reviewed in Foreign Affairs, October 1945.

Wang Gungwu, Wong Siu-ling, et al., eds. Hong Kong in the Asia Pacific Region, Rising to New Challenges. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1997. Includes chapters from Tommy Koh, Joseph Cheng, Gordon Wu, Yusuf Wanandi and others on regional issues for Hong Kong.

Wang Gungwu, Wong Siu-ling, et al., eds. Hong Kong’s Transition: A Decade After the Deal. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1995. Includes chapters on the civil service, education, the business community, mass media and challenges to the common Law.

Wang Gungwu, Wong Siu-ling, et al., eds. Towards a New Millennium, Building on Hong Kong’s Strengths. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1999. Includes chapters on transport, communications, democratisation, migration and the cultural kaleidoscope.

Weiss, Anita M. ‘South Asian Muslims in Hong Kong: Creation of a “Local Boy” Identity’. Modern Asian Studies 25:3 (July 1991), 417-453.

White, Barbara-Sue. Turbans and Traders – Hong Kong’s Indian Communities. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Wong Siu-lin, ed. Chinese and Indian Diasporas: Comparative Perspectives. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 2004.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Voices and Silences of Memory: Civilian Internees of the Japanese in British Asia during the Second World War’. Journal of British Studies 50:4 (October 2011), 917-940.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Eurasians in British Asia during the Second World War’. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 21:4 (October 2011), 485-505.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Creativity and the Body: Civilian Internees in British Asia during the Second World War’. In G. Carr and H. Mytum, eds. Cultural Heritage and Prisoners of War: Creativity Behind Barbed Wire. New York: Routledge, 2012.


Aslanian, Sebouh. From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean, The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfra. California: University of California Press, 2011.

Hovannisian, Richard, ed. Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. New York: Palgrave MacMillan 2004.
Vol. I – The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the 14th Century
Vol. II – Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the 15th to the 20th Century

Libaridian, Gerard J. Modern Armenia, People Nation State. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2004.

Payaslian, Simon. The History of Armenia from the Origins to the Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.

Redgate, Anne Elizabeth. The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.

Seth, Mesrovb Jacob. Armenians in India from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, AWork of Original Research. New Delhi/Madras: Asian Educational Services, 1992.

Sergoyan, E.G. The Gathering Place, Stories from the Armenian Social Club in Old Shanghai. Seattle: Coffeetown Press, 2012.

Smith, Carl T. ‘An Eighteenth Century Macao Armenian Merchant Prince’. Review of Culture, International Edition 6 (2003).

Smith, Carl T., and Paul A. Van Dyke. ‘Armenian Footprints in Macau’. Review of Culture, International Edition 8 (2003), 20-39.

Smith, Carl T., and Paul A. Van Dyke. ‘Four Armenian Families’. Review of Culture, International Edition 8 (2003): 40-50.

Smith, Carl T. ‘Parsee Merchants in the Pearl River Delta’. Review of Culture, International Edition 10 (2004).

Thampi, Madhavi. ‘Parsees in the China Trade’. Review of Culture, International Edition 10 (2004).

Wright, Nadia H. Respected Citizens, The History of Armenians in Singapore and Malaysia. Victoria, Australia: Amassia Publishing, 2003. A fantastically detailed account of how and why Armenians got to and settled in malaysia and Singapore, who they were (from individuals to multi-generational clans), what they did, how they worshipped, and where, from Penang to Singapore’s Orchard Road. The Historical Overview starts in 1819 and runs into the 21st century. Familiar names such as the Sarkies and Apcar are detailed, along with all the myriad, inter-related enterprises, to less familiar names such as Mackertoom Galastaun.


Guo Deyan. ‘The Study of Parsee Merchants in Canton, Hong Kong and Macao’. Review of Culture, International Edition 8 (2003).

Kulke, Eckehard. The Parsees in India, A Minority as Agent of Social Change. Uttar Pradesh: Vikas Publishing House, 1974.

Tripathi, Dwijendra, ed. Business Communities of India, A Historical Perspective. New Delhi: Manohar, 1984.


Coates, Austin. Macao and the British 1637-1842 – Prelude to Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, Reprint in the ‘Echoes: Classics of Hong Kong Culture and History’ series, 1966, 2009.

Coates, Austin. A Macao Narrative. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, Reprint in the ‘Echoes: Classics of Hong Kong Culture and History’ series, 1978, 2009.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. Encountering Macau – A Portuguese City-State on the Periphery of China 1557-1999. Westview Press, 1996.

Ljungstedt, Anders. An Historical Sketch of the Portuguese Settlements in China and of the Roman Catholic Church and Mission in China & Description of the City of Canton. (1st ed Boston: James Munroe & Co, 1836) Hong Kong: Viking Hong Kong Publications, 1992.

McGivering, Jill. Macao Remembers. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Pittis, Donald and Susan J. Henders, eds. Macao: Mysterious Decay and Romance, An Anthology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Ride, Lindsay and May. The Voices of Macao Stones. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999.
ALSO: Ride, Lindsay and May. Edited by Bernard Mellor. An East India Company Cemetery, Protestant Burials in Macao. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1996.

Silva, Frederic A. (Jim). Things I Remember. San Francisco, 1999.

Silva, Frederic A. (Jim). Todo O Nosso Passado – All Our Yesterdays – The Sons of Macao, Their History and Heritage. (1st ed UMA Inc of California, 1979). Macau: Livros do Oriente, 1996.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Portuguese Communities in East and Southeast Asia’. In L. Jarnagin, ed. Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511-2011: The Making of the Luso-Asian World: Intricacies of Engagement Vol. 1, 2011.


This list highlights several points: there is a rich trove of literature on Indonesian Eurasians, on American Chinese, overseas Chinese, and inter-marriage between ethnicities in Singapore (and Malaysia). Separately of course, “Eurasia” has specific geographical, archeological, geological meaning in the land links between China and Europe (the “Stans”, the Steppe etc). And there has been a Russian debate on what it calls Eurasians, a specific outgrowth of the 1917 revolution and evolving ideologies of Russianness. There is, however, no single article in these lists about Hong Kong’s Eurasians!

Abalahin, Andrew J. ‘”Sino-Pacifica”: Conceptualizing Greater Southeast Asia as a Sub-Arena of World History’. Journal of World History 22:4 (2011) , 659-691.

Adams, Julia. ‘Principals and Agents, Colonialists and Company Men: The Decay of Colonial Control in the Dutch East Indies’. American Sociological Review 61:1 (1996), 12-28.

Archer, Louise, Becky Francis, and Ada Mau. ‘The Culture Project: Diasporic Negotiations of Ethnicity, Identity and Culture Among Teachers, Pupils and Parents in Chinese Language Schools’. Oxford Review of Education  36:4 (2010), 407-426.

Baker, Hugh D.R. ‘Life in the Cities: The Emergence of Hong Kong Man’. China Quarterly 95 (1983), 469-479.

Baines, J. A. ‘A Census of the Empire.’ Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 66:1 (1903), 31-70.

Beaudry, James A. ‘Hong Kong: Stability and Change: A Collection of Essays by Henry Lethbridge’ [Review]. Contemporary Sociology 9:5 (1980), 682.

Betta, Chiara. ‘From Orientals to Imagined Britons: Baghdadi Jews in Shanghai’. Modern Asian Studies 37:4 (2003), 999-1023.

Bickers, R. A. ‘Death of a Young Shanghailander: The Thorburn Case and the Defence of the British Treaty Ports in China in 1931’. Modern Asian Studies 30:2 (1996), 271-300.

Bickers, Robert. ‘Shanghailanders: The Formation and Identity of the British Settler Community in Shanghai 1843-1937’. Past & Present 159 (1998), 161-211.

Bickers, Robert. ‘The Challenger: Hugh Hamilton Lindsay and the Rise of British Asia, 1832-1865’. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society  22 (2012), 141-169.

Bonacich, Edna. ‘A Theory of Middleman Minorities’. American Sociological Review 38:5 (1973), 583-594.

Brown, Colin. ‘Playing the Game: Ethnicty and Politics in Indonesian Badminton’. Indonesia 81 (2006), 71-93.

B.R.P. ‘The Eurasian Population in Burma by John Clement Kloop’ [Review]. International Affairs 37:3 (1961), 401.

Burns, John P. ‘Immigration from China and the Future of Hong Kong’. Asian Survey  27:6 (1987), 661-682.

Camacho, Julia María Schiavone. ‘Crossing Boundaries, Claiming a Homeland: The Mexican Chinese Transpacific Journey to Becoming Mexican, 1930s–1960s’. Pacific Historical Review 78:4 (2009), 545-577.

Carroll, John M. ‘Colonial Hong Kong as a Cultural-Historical Place’. Modern Asian Studies 40:2 (2006), 517-543.

Carroll, John M. ‘A National Custom: Debating Female Servitude in Late Nineteenth-Century Hong Kong’. Modern Asian Studies 43:6 (2009), 1463-1493.

Carstens, Sharon. ‘Dancing Lions and Disappearing History: The National Culture Debates and Chinese Malaysian Culture’. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies  13:1 (1999), 11-63.

Cartier, Carolyn. ‘Cosmopolitics and the Maritime World City’. Geographical Review 89:2 (1999), 278-289

Chakó, Sussy. ‘My Father’s Story’. Manoa 5:2 (1993), 1-8.

Chan, Ming K. ‘The Legacy of the British Administration of Hong Kong: A View from Hong Kong’. China Quarterly  151 (1997), 567-582.

Chan, Ming K. ‘Hong Kong: Colonial Legacy, Transformation, and Challenge’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 547 (1996) , 11-23.

Chan, Selina Ching. ‘Politicizing Tradition: The Identity of Indigenous Inhabitants in Hong Kong’. Ethnology  37:1 (1998), 39-54.

Chang, Maria Hsia. ‘Greater China and the Chinese “Global Tribe”‘. Asian Survey  35:10 (1995), 955-967.

Charles, Kerwin Kofi, Erik Hurst, and Nikolai Roussanov. ‘Conspicuous Consumption and Race’. Quarterly Journal of Economics 124:2 (2009), 425-467.

Ching, Frank. ‘Misreading Hong Kong’. Foreign Affairs 76:3 (1997), 53-66.

Chow, Karen Har-Yen. ‘Asian American Transnationalism in John Woo’s “Bullet in the Head”‘. Journal of Narrative Theory 30:3 (2000) , 364-384.

Chow, Rey. ‘Introduction: On Chineseness as a Theoretical Problem’. boundary 2 25:3 (1998), 1-24.

Christopher, A. J. ‘Urban Segregation Levels in the British Overseas Empire and Its Successors, in the Twentieth Century’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers  New Series, 17:1 (1992), 95-107.

Chu Yiu-Wai. ‘The Importance of Being Chinese: Orientalism Reconfigured in the Age of Global Modernity’. boundary 2 35:2 (2008), 183-206.

Chuang, Richard. ‘”Home” Insurance for British Nationals in Hong Kong?’. Asian Affairs 17:1 (1990), 31-42.

Chun, Allen. ‘Fuck Chineseness: On the Ambiguities of Ethnicity as Culture as Identity’. boundary 2  23:2 (1996), 111-138.

Collins, Jock. ‘John Chinaman and John Newman: Challenging Asian Stereotyping’. Australian Quarterly  66:4 (1994), 26-48.

Constable, Nicole. ‘The Commodification of Intimacy: Marriage, Sex, and Reproductive Labor’. Annual Review of Anthropology 38 (2009), 49-64.

Cowell, Christopher. ‘The Hong Kong Fever of 1843: Collective Trauma and the Reconfiguring of Colonial Space’. Modern Asian Studies  47:2 (2013), 329-364.

Daniels, Ronald J. and Michael J. Trebilcock, and Lindsey D. Carson. ‘The Legacy of Empire: The Common Law Inheritance and Commitments to Legality in Former British Colonies’. American Journal of Comparative Law 59:1 (2011), 111-178.

Darwin, John. ‘Imperialism and the Victorians: The Dynamics of Territorial Expansion’. English Historical Review 112:447 (1997), 614-642.

Dikötter, Frank. ‘Racial Identities in China: Context and Meaning’. China Quarterly 138 (1994), 404-412.

Dirlik, Arif. ‘Race Talk, Race, and Contemporary Racism’. PMLA  123:5 (2008), 1363-1379.

‘Documents connected with the Hong Kong Stamp Act, passed in the Legislative Council, Sept. 5th’. Foreign and Commonwealth Office Collection (1866).

Dowd, James J.,  and Nicole R. Pallotta. ‘The End of Romance: The Demystification of Love in the Postmodern Age’. Sociological Perspectives 43:4 (2000), 549-580.

Dwyer, D. J. ‘Hong Kong: Victorian Colony: Review.’ Geographical Journal 138:4 (1972), 491-494.
Reviews Hong Kong: The Industrial Colony by Keith Hopkins.

‘Far Eastern Bibliography 1942’. Far Eastern Quarterly  1:4 (1942), 421-443.

‘Far Eastern Bibliography 1946’. Far Eastern Quarterly 6:3 (1947), 221-261.

Fausto-Sterling, Anne. ‘The Bare Bones of Race’. Social Studies of Science 38:5 (2008), 657-594.

Findlay, A.M., and F.L.N. Li. ‘An Auto-Biographical Approach to Understanding Migration: The Case of Hong Kong Emigrants’. Area  29:1 (1997), 34-44.

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Forman, Ross G. ‘Hong Kong, 1898’. Victorian Review  36:1 (2010), 45-49.

Frost, Mark Ravinder. ‘Emporium in Imperio: Nanyang Networks and the Straits Chinese in Singapore, 1819-1914’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies  36:1 (2005), 29-66.

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Girardot, N.J. ‘James Legge and the Strange Saga of British Sinology and the Comparative Science of Religions in the Nineteenth Century’. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 12:2 (2002), 155-165.

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Goh, Daniel P.S. ‘Unofficial Contentions: The Postcoloniality of Straits Chinese Political Discourse in the Straits Settlements Legislative Council’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 41:3 (2010), 483-507.

Goh, Robbie B. H. ‘Singapore’s “Two YMCAs”: Christianity, Colonialism, and Ethnic Fault Lines’.Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 18:2 (2007), 29-64.

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Hill, R.D. ‘Singapore — An Asian City-State’. GeoJournal  4:1 (1980), 5-12.

Hirata, Lucie Cheng. ‘Free, Indentured, Enslaved: Chinese Prostitutes in Nineteenth-Century America’. Signs  5:1 (1979), 3-29.

Ho, Elaine Yee Lin. ‘”Imagination’s Commonwealth”: Edmund Blunden’s Hong Kong Dialogue’. PMLA 124:1 (2009), 76-91.

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Hook, Brian, and Miguel Santos Neves. ‘The Role of Hong Kong and Macau in China’s Relations with Europe’. China Quarterly 169, Special Issue: China and Europe since 1978: A European Perspective (2002), 108-135.

Hooker, Reginald H. ‘Modes of Census-Taking in the British Dominions’. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society 57:2 (1894), 298-368.

Hsu, Madeline Y. ‘Migration and Native Place: Qiaokan and the Imagined Community of Taishan County, Guangdong, 1893-1993’. Journal of Asian Studies  59:2 (2000), 307-331.

Huang, Jianli, and Lysa Hong. ‘Chinese Diasporic Culture and National Identity: The Taming of the Tiger Balm Gardens in Singapore’. Modern Asian Studies 41:1 (2007), 41-76.

Hughes, R. H. ‘Hong Kong: An Urban Study’. Geographical Journal 117:1 (1951), 1-23.

Huppatz, D.J. ‘The Chameleon and the Pearl of the Orient’. Design Issues 22:2 (2006), 64-76.

Jackson, Ashley. ‘Review: Empire and beyond: The Pursuit of Overseas National Interests in the Late Twentieth Century’. English Historical Review 122:499 (2007), 1350-1366.
Works Reviewed: The British Empire in the 1950s: Retreat or Revival? by Martin Lynn; Britain’s Declining Empire: The Road to Decolonization, 1918-1968 by Ronald Hyam; At the End of the Line: Colonial Policing and the Imperial Endgame, 1945-80 by Georgina Sinclair; The Blood Never Dried: A People’s History of the British Empire by John Newsinger; Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain’s Asian Empire by Christopher Bayly; Tim Harper

Johnson, Graham E. ‘Hong Kong: The Anthropology of a Chinese Metropolis. by Grant Evans; Maria Tam Siu-Mi’ [Review]. Pacific Affairs  71:4 (1998-1999), 570-571.

Kan, Flora, and Edward Vickers. ‘One Hong Kong, Two Histories: ‘History’ and ‘Chinese History’ in the Hong Kong School Curriculum’. Comparative Education 38:1 (2002), 73-89.

Katyal, Kokila Roy, and Mark King. ‘”Outsiderness” and “Insiderness” in a Confucian Society: Complexity of Contexts’. Comparative Education 47:3 Special Issue (42): Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures (2011), 327-341.

Kennedy, Kerry J., and Ming Tak Hue. ‘Researching Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese Context: Mixed Methods Design for Cross Cultural Understandings’. Comparative Education  47:3 Special Issue (42): Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures (2011), 343-354.

Kerr, Douglas. ‘Three Ways of Going Wrong: Kipling, Conrad, Coetzee’. Modern Language Review 95:1 (2000), 18-27.

Kinkley, Jeffrey C. ‘City of the Queen: A Novel of Colonial Hong Kong by Shih Shu-ching; Sylvia Li-chun Lin; Howard Goldblatt.’ World Literature Today 80:6 (2006), 68.

Kirby, E. Stuart. ‘The Anatomy of Hongkong’. Far Eastern Survey 18:10 (1949), 114-116.

Kirk-Greene, Anthony. ‘Decolonization: The Ultimate Diaspora’. Journal of Contemporary History 36:1 (2001), 133-151.

Kong, Lily, and Elaine Goh. ‘Folktales and Reality: The Social Construction of Race in Chinese Tales’. Area  27:3 (1995), 261-267.

Ku, Agnes S. ‘Immigration Policies, Discourses, and the Politics of Local Belonging in Hong Kong (1950-1980)’. Modern China 30:3 (2004), 326-360.

Kubota, Ryuko, and Angel Lin. ‘Race and TESOL: Introduction to Concepts and Theories’. TESOL Quarterly 40:3 (2006), 471-493.

Kuo, Huei-Ying. ‘Agency amid Incorporation: Chinese Business Networks in Hong Kong and Singapore and the Colonial Origins of the Resurgence of East Asia, 1800-1940’. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 32:3 (2009), 211-237.

Lake, Marilyn. ‘Chinese Colonists Assert Their “Common Human Rights”: Cosmopolitanism as Subject and Method of History’. Journal of World History  21:3 (2010), 375-392.

Lambert, David, and Philip Howell. ‘John Pope Hennessy and the Translation of ‘Slavery’ Between Late Nineteenth-Century Barbados and Hong Kong’. History Workshop Journal  55 (2003), 1-24.

Leinonen, Johanna. ‘”Money Is Not Everything and That’s the Bottom Line”: Family Ties in Transatlantic Elite Migrations’. Social Science History 36:2 (2012), 243-268.

Leow, Rachel.'”Do you own non-Chinese mui tsai?”‘ Re-examining Race and Female Servitude in Malaya and Hong Kong, 1919-1939’. Modern Asian Studies 46:6 (2012), 1736-1763.

Leung, Maggi W.H. ‘Fates of European Heritage in Post-Colonial Contexts: Political Economy of Memory and Forgetting in Hong Kong’. Geographische Zeitschrift Bd. 97:H.1 (2009) , 24-42.

Levi, Scott. ‘The Indian Merchant Diaspora in Early Modern Central Asia and Iran’. Iranian Studies 32:4 (1999), 483-512.

Levine, Philippa. ‘Orientalist Sociology and the Creation of Colonial Sexualities’. Feminist Review 65 (2000), 5-21.

Lewis, Su Lin. ‘Cosmopolitanism and the Modern Girl: A Cross-Cultural Discourse in 1930s Penang’. Modern Asian Studies 43:6 (2009), 1385-1419.

Li, David Leiwei. ‘On Ascriptive and Acquisitional Americanness: The Accidental Asian and the Illogic of Assimilation’. Contemporary Literature 45:1 (2004), 106-134.

Li, F. L. N., A. J. Jowett, A. M. Findlay, and R. Skeldon. ‘Discourse on Migration and Ethnic Identity: Interviews with Professionals in Hong Kong’.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20:3 (1995), 342-356.

Li Minghuan. ‘From “Sons of the Yellow Emperor” to “Children of Indonesian Soil”: Studying Peranakan Chinese Based on the Batavia Kong Koan Archives’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34:2 (2003), 215-230.

Li, Wenxin. ‘Sui Sin Far and the Chinese American Canon: Toward a Post-Gender-Wars Discourse’. MELUS  29:3/4 (2004), 121-131.

Lin, Chua Ai. ‘Nation, Race, and Language: Discussing transnational identities in colonial Singapore, Circa 1930’. Modern Asian Studies 46:2 (2012), 283-302.

Liu Shuyong. ‘Hong Kong: A Survey of Its Political and Economic Development over the Past 150 Years’. China Quarterly 151 (1997), 583-592.

Lockard, Craig A. ‘”The Sea Common to All”: Maritime Frontiers, Port Cities, and Chinese Traders in the Southeast Asian Age of Commerce, ca. 1400-1750’. Journal of World History 21:2 (2010), 219-247.

Lockard, Craig A. ‘History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800 by Geoffrey C. Gunn’ [Review]. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde  168:2/3 (2012), 346-349.

Lockwood, Jr., William W. ‘Hongkong–Empire Bulwark or Hostage to Fortune?’. Far Eastern Survey  7:3 (1938), 25-29.

Louis, Wm. Roger. ‘Hong Kong: The Critical Phase, 1945-1949’. American Historical Review  102:4 (1997) 1052-1084.

Maartensz, Lewis, Thomas Baty and A. Herchenroder. ‘Eastern Colonies’. Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation 10:2 (1910), 314-325.

Manderson, Lenore. ‘Colonial Desires: Sexuality, Race, and Gender in British Malaya’. Journal of the History of Sexuality 7:3 (1997), 372-388.

Mark, Chi-Kwan. ‘The ‘Problem of People’: British Colonials, Cold War Powers, and the Chinese Refugees in Hong Kong, 1949-62′. Modern Asian Studies 41:6 (2007), 1145-1181.

Martin, Robert Montgomery. ‘Reports, Minutes and Despatches, on the British Position and Prospects in China’. Knowsley Pamphlet Collection (1846).

Mazlish, Bruce. ‘Comparing Global History to World History’. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 28:3 (1998), 385-395.

McKeown, Adam. ‘Conceptualizing Chinese Diasporas, 1842 to 1949’. Journal of Asian Studies 58:2 (1999), 306-337.

McKeown, Adam. ‘Transnational Chinese Families and Chinese Exclusion, 1875-1943’. Journal of American Ethnic History  18:2 (1999), 73-110.

McKeown, Adam. ‘Global Migration, 1846-1940’. Journal of World History 15:2 (2004), 155-189.

Megginson, W. J. ‘Britain and China, 1941-47: Imperial Momentum by Aron Shai’ [Review]. American Historical Review 90:3 (1985), 653-654).

Mielants, Eric. ‘Perspectives on the Origins of Merchant Capitalism in Europe’. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 23:2 (2000), 229-292.

Miller, John Duncan. ‘The British Far Eastern Policy’. World Affairs  114:2 (1951), 43-45.

Mukhopadhyay, Carol C., and Yolanda T. Moses. ‘Reestablishing “Race” in Anthropological Discourse’. American Anthropologist 99:3 (1997), 517-533.

Nagel, Joane. ‘Racial, Ethnic, and National Boundaries: Sexual Intersections and Symbolic Interactions’. Symbolic Interaction 24:2 (2001), 123-139.

Oetomo, Dédé. ‘The Chinese of Indonesia and the Development of the Indonesian Language’. Indonesia (1991), 53-66.

Pedersen, Susan. ‘The Maternalist Moment in British Colonial Policy: The Controversy over ‘Child Slavery’ in Hong Kong 1917-1941′. Past & Present 171 (2001), 161-202.

Peleggi, Maurizio. ‘The Social and Material Life of Colonial Hotels: Comfort Zones as Contact Zones in British Colombo and Singapore, ca. 1870-1930’. Journal of Social History 46:1 (2012), 124-153.

Pon, Gordon. ‘Antiracism in the Cosmopolis: Race, Class, and Gender in the Lives of Elite Chinese Canadian Women’. Social Justice 32:4 (2005), 161-179.

Pye, Lucian W. ‘The International Position of Hong Kong’. China Quarterly 95 (1983), 456-468.

Pieke, Frank N. ‘Immigrant China’. Modern China 38:1 Special Issue: New and Old Diversities in Contemporary China (2012), 40-77.

Pomfret, David M. ‘”Child Slavery” in British and French Far-Eastern Colonies, 1880-1945’. Past & Present  201 (2008), 175-213.

Pomfret, David M. ‘Raising Eurasia: Race, Class, and Age in French and British Colonies’. Comparative Studies in Society and History 51:2 (2009), 314-343.

Quayum, Mohammad A. ‘”My Country” / “Our Country”: Race Dynamics and Contesting Nationalisms in Lloyd Fernando’s “Green is the Colour” and Shirley Geok-lin Lim’s “Joss and Gold”‘. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 18:2 (2007), 65-89.

Ray, Rajat Kanta. ‘Asian Capital in the Age of European Domination: The Rise of the Bazaar, 1800-1914’. Modern Asian Studies  29:3 (1995), 449-554.

Robertson, Frank. ‘Refugees and Troop Moves–A Report from Hong Kong’. China Quarterly 11 (1962), 111-115.

Rovit, Earl. ‘J. G. Farrell and the Imperial Theme’. Sewanee Review 106:4 (1998), 630-644.

Scobell, Andrew. ‘Hong Kong’s Influence on China: The Tail That Wags the Dog?’ Asian Survey 28:6 (1988), 599-612.

Scully, Eileen P. ‘Prostitution as Privilege: The ‘American Girl’ of Treaty-Port Shanghai, 1860-1937′. International History Review  20:4 (1998), 855-883.

Selwyn-Clarke, Hilda. ‘Hong Kong Dilemma’. Far Eastern Survey 16:1 (1947) , 5-8.

Sherry, Norman. ‘Conrad’s Source for Lord Jim’. Modern Language Review  59:4( 1964), 545-557.

Shibata, Yoshiko. ‘Revisiting Chinese Hybridity: Negotiating Categories and Re-constructing Ethnicity in Contemporary Jamaica – a Preliminary Report’. Caribbean Quarterly 51:1 (2005), 53-75.

Shih, Shu-mei. ‘Gender and a New Geopolitics of Desire: The Seduction of Mainland Women in Taiwan and Hong Kong Media’. Signs 23:2 (1998), 287-319.

Siu, Helen F. ‘Cultural Identity and the Politics of Difference in South China’. Daedalus 122:2 (1993) , 19-43.

So, Waii Chor. ‘Race, Culture, and the Anglo-American Powers: The Views of Chinese Collaborators’. Modern China 37:1 (2011), 69-103.

Strassler, Karen. ‘Cosmopolitan Visions: Ethnic Chinese and the Photographic Imagining of Indonesia in the Late Colonial and Early Postcolonial Periods’. Journal of Asian Studies 67:2 (2008), 395-432.

Su, Tieting. ‘Myth and Mystery of Globalization: World Trade Networks in 1928, 1938, 1960, and 1999’. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 25:4 (2002), 351-392.

Sutherland, Heather. ‘Southeast Asian History and the Mediterranean Analogy’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34:1 (2003), 1-20.

Sweeting, Anthony, and Edward Vickers. ‘Language and the History of Colonial Education: The Case of Hong Kong’. Modern Asian Studies 41:1 (2007), 1-40.

Taeuber, Irene B. ‘Chinese Populations in Transition: The City-States’. Population Index  38:1 (1972), 3-34.

Tambe, Ashwini. ‘The Elusive Ingénue: A Transnational Feminist Analysis of European Prostitution in Colonial Bombay.’ Gender and Society 19:2 (2005), 160-179.

Tilly, Charles. ‘Cities, states, and Trust Networks: Chapter 1 of Cities and States in World History’.Theory and Society 39:3/4, Special Issue in Memory of Charles Tilly (1929–2008): Cities, States, Trust, and Rule (2010), 265-280.

Tsai, Jung-Fang. ‘The Predicament of the Comprador Ideologists: He Qi (Ho Kai, 1859-1914) and Hu Liyuan (1847-1916)’. Modern China 7:2 (1981), 191-225.

Tu Wei-ming. ‘Cultural China: The Periphery as the Center’. Daedalus 134:4 (2005), 145-167.

van der Veur, Paul W. ‘Being “Dutch” in the Indies: A History of Creolisation and Empire, 1500-1920 by Ulbe Bosma; Remco Raben; Wendie Shaffer; De Geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders by Ulbe Bosma; Remco Raben; Wim Willems’ [Review]. Indonesia 86 (2008), 187-190.

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Walker, Kirsty. ‘Intimate Interactions: Eurasian family histories in colonial Penan.’ Modern Asian Studies 46:2 (2012) , 303-329.

Ward, Kerry. ‘Blood Ties: Exile, Family, and Inheritance across the Indian Ocean in the Early Nineteenth Century’. Journal of Social History 45:2 (2011), 436-452.

Watson, J. K. P. ‘Education and Cultural Pluralism in South East Asia, with Special Reference to Peninsular Malaysia’. Comparative Education 16:2 (1980), 139-158.

Weiss, Anita M. ‘South Asian Muslims in Hong Kong: Creation of a “Local Boy” Identity’. Modern Asian Studies  25:3 (1991), 417-453.

Wesley-Smith, Peter. ‘Law in Hong Kong and China: The Meshing of Systems’. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 547 (1996) , 104-117.

Western, John. ‘Undoing the Colonial City?’. Geographical Review 75:3 (1985), 335-357.

Wong, Yuk-Lin Renita. ‘When East Meets West: Nation, Colony, and Hong Kong Women’s Subjectivities in Gender and China Development’. Modern China 30:2 (2004), 259-292.

Yang, Mina. ‘East Meets West in the Concert Hall: Asians and Classical Music in the Century of Imperialism, Post-Colonialism, and Multiculturalism’. Asian Music 38:1 (2007), 1-30.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Sex and Stereotypes: Eurasians, Jews and the Politics of Race and Religion in British Asia during the Second World War’. Social Scientist 38:3/4 (2010) , 74-93.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Eurasians in British Asia during the Second World War: Joint Winner of the Sir George Staunton Prize’. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society  21:4 (2011) , 485-505.

Yap, Felicia. ‘Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees of the Japanese in British Asia: The Similarities and Contrasts of Experience’. Journal of Contemporary History  47:2 (2012), 317-346.

Yue, Isaac. ‘Missionaries (MIS-)Representing China: Orientalism, Religion, and the Conceptualization of Victorian Cultural Identity’. Victorian Literature and Culture 37:1 (2009), 1-10.

Zheng, Yangwen. ‘The Social Life of Opium in China, 1483-1999’. Modern Asian Studies 37:1 (2003), 1-39.


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