By Vaudine England
This section attempts to combine a global perspective on Hong Kong to a now established understanding of Hong Kong history, to look more closely at the many varied peoples of Hong Kong and its neighbourhood.
Reading around the issues provides many questions to be answered with regard to Hong Kong: how did settler and/or expatriate life in Hong Kong compare to that of Shanghai and other Treaty Ports; were personalities different or strictures of race and class and if so, how; did being a colony rather than a mere treaty port produce a different matrix of security/insecurity, identity/lack of identity or other differences; were definitions of Britishness the same across all foreign settlements or was Hong Kong unique, and what did that mean for other ‘Others’, such as those of separate classes, races or mixtures thereof.
PRIORITY READING SUGGESTIONS:
Bickers, Robert. Settlers and Expatriates: Britons over the Seas. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Bickers, Robert. Britain in China: Community, Culture and Colonialism 1900-49. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1999. This draws a clear line between ‘settlers’ and ‘expatriates’ in a geography almost entirely focused on Shanghai – not Hong Kong – thus on informal empire: the International Settlement, the concessions, and the variations of treaty port settlements. ‘Settlers’ are lower-middle class Britons and non-Western ‘British people’ (including Parsees, Jews, Eurasians), who ran the Shanghai Municipal Council, staffed the Police, ran utilities, and created a self-defined community on the China Coast for generations. One chapter examines what ideas of China these people would have had before they left Britain for the East. Bickers then details the intense socialisation process each new recruit went through on landing in Shanghai – being met by a longer-term settler, introduced to the small and exclusively Western social scene, the club, the sport, the horse-racing, the tiny and in his view self-satisfied world of people who believed they had a right to be in China, who developed their own history of being there, and felt entitled to stay there no matter what. He places the people who ran Jardines, Swires and the other big hongs as ‘expatriates’, a hard line to hold as of course some expatriates were also settlers. Settlers are those who stayed in the East, who saw home as being in China, who were the (mostly western) compradores of international trade, and who therefore had a stake in that grey zone status continuing.
His narrative traces how the 1925 shooting of Chinese in Shanghai woke London up to the fact that these settlers had developed a life of their own which was not necessarily in line with London’s interests which were then (and are today) all about trade with Peking. London set about demolishing the grey zones, ending various treaty port arrangements, trying to make clear what was a colony and what was not – all this long before world war two. So ‘settlers’ were already having to see Hong Kong as their last hope, before the war and before the communist victory.
Bickers, Robert. Empire Made Me: An Englishman Adrift in Shanghai. London: Allen Lane/Penguin, and Columbia University Press, 2003. (Winner of the 2004 AHA Forkosch Prize for post-1945 British and British Imperial History.) This dives deeply into the life of one man, Tinkler, who was a policeman in Shanghai and met a shaky end. He is a classic example of a Poor White, those who did not run the hongs, but whose lives were shaped by the opportunities of empire. Bickers’ descriptions of ‘settler’ culture are sadly disparaging – the narrow-minded racism, petty shifts for status, being in China not for China but for themselves, etc.
Bickers, Robert and Christian Henriot. New Frontiers: Imperialism’s New Communities in East Asia 1842-1953. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2000. This important contribution includes the following chapters:
1. Introduction by Bickers and Henriot
2. Colonialism ‘In a Chinese Atmosphere’: The Caldwell Affair and the Perils of Collaboration in Early Colonial Hong Kong by Christopher Munn
3. Marginal Westerners in Shanghai: The Baghdadi Jewish Community, 1845-1931 by Chiara Betta
4. Indian Communities in China, c.1842-1949 by Claude Markovits
5. Foreigners or Outsiders? Westerners and Chinese Christians in Chongqing, 1870s-1900 by Judith Wyman
6. The Japanese and the Jews: A Comparative Analysis of Their Communities in Harbin, 1898-1930 by Joshua A. Fogel
7. Japanese Colonial citizenship in treaty port China: the location of Koreans and Taiwanese in the Imperial Order by Barbara J. Brooks
8. Denied and Besieged: The Japanese Community of Korea, 1876-1945 by Alain Delissen
9. ‘Little Japan’ in Shanghai: An Insulated Community, 1875-1945 by Christian Henriot
10. Who Were the Shanghai Municipal Police, and Why Were They There? The British Recruits of 1919 by Robert Bickers
11. The Russian Diaspora Community in Shanghai by Marcia R. Ristaino
12. In Search of Identity: The German Community in Shanghai, 1933-1945 by Francoise Kreissler
13. The Shanghai American Community, 1937-1949 by Mark F. Wilkinson
14. Afterword: A Colonial World by John Darwin
Allen N.J., Gombrich R.F., Raychaudhuri T., and Rizvi G., general eds. Oxford University Papers on India, Volume I, Part 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987. Chapter 3: ‘Eurasians Under British Rule’, by Richard Symonds, pp. 28-42.
This focuses on Anglo-Indians and compares their experience to that if Dutch-Indonesians. It also includes the immortal line: ‘It is interesting that the British, themselves hybrids, should have placed so much emphasis on race in the style of rule’, p. 41 (emphasis added).
Chan Candy Yik-yi, ed. Foreign Communities in Hong Kong 1840s-1950s. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. This includes chapters on the 19th century German Community (by Ricardo K.S. Mak), the Catholic Church between the Two World Wars (by Cindy Chu), the Making of a Japanese Community in the Prewar Period (by Benjamin Wai-ming Ng), American ‘China Hands’ in the 1950s (by Chi-kwan Mark) and Migrants from India and Their Relations with British and Chinese Residents (by Caroline Pluss). Three other chapters deal with the early British community, British attitudes towards Hong Kong, and Stanley Prisoner of War Camp.
FORTHCOMING FROM DR SINN: from a Workshop she hosted in January 2012, on Multicultural Encounters in Hong Kong. Contributions include:
1. Western Firms and Chinese Compradors: The Case of Jebsen & Co. and Chau Yue Ting by Bert Becker (HKU History Dept.)
2. The Making of Accomplished Women: English Education for Girls, 1900s-1940s by Patricia Chiu (HKU History Dept.)
3. A Minority in the Margins (1860s-1960s) by Vicky Lee (Baptist University, Hong Kong)
4. Trouble in Fairyland: Ministering Children and Imperial Childhoods by David Pomfret (HKU History Dept.)
5. Local Society, Colonial Government and the Catholic Church in the Early Administration of the New Territories by Kentaro Matsubara (Law Department, University of Tokyo)
6. A Clone of Canton: the Origins of Pre-war Hong Kong Urban Culture by May Bo Ching (Sun Yat-sen University History Dept.)
7. More Brown than Pale: Carvalho Yeo and the 1928 Hong Kong Treasury Swindle by Christopher Munn (then of Hong Kong University Press and the Hong Kong Institute for the Humanities and Social Sciences, HKU)
8. War in the Juke-Box Jungle: American GIs and Hong Kong Identity by Peter Hamilton (PhD, University of Texas, Austin, USA)
9. Cathay’s New World: Transpacific Flows in Hong Kong Film by Staci Ford (HKU History Dept./American Studies)
10. Japanese Ramen with a Chinese Twist – Instant Noodles and their Localization Efforts in Hong Kong by Yoshiko Nakano (HK University, Japanese Studies Dept.)
OTHER READING SUGGESTIONS:
Barr, Pat. To China With Love, The Lives and Times of Protestant Missionaries in China 1860-1900. London: Secker & Warburg, 1972.
Barr, Pat. The Coming of the Barbarians, A Story of Western Settlement in Japan 1853-1870. London: Readers Union/Macmillan, 1967.
Blusse, Leonard. Bitter Bonds, A Colonial Divorce Drama of the 17th Century. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publication, 2002. About a divorce between a Japanese/Eurasian widow and failed Dutch businessman Bitter, the fortune hunter.
Blusse, Leonard. Visible Cities: Canton, Nagasaki and Batavia and the Coming of the Americans. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2008.
Blusse, Leonard. Strange Company: Chinese Settlers, Mestizo Women and the Dutch in VOC Batavia. Dordrecht: KITLV (Krononklijk Instituut Voor Taal Land en Volkenkunde), 1986.
Blake, Myrna L. Kampong Eurasians in Singapore. Thesis, University of Singapore, 1973.
Breitung, Werner. ‘A Tale of Two Borders – Separation and Exchange: Macao and Hong Kong’s Borders with the Mainland’. Review of Culture 9 (2004), 7-17.
Breitung, Werner. ‘Living With Borders – Overcoming Borders’ Review of Culture 9 (2004), 18-29.
Buck, Pearl S. Letter from Peking. London: Pan Books, 1959. (First published in 1957 by Methuen & Co.). A fictional drama of racial intermarriage.
Butcher, John G. The British in Malaya 1880-1941: The Social History of a European Community in Colonial South East Asia. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press, 1979.
Cernea, Ruth Fredman. Almost Englishmen: Baghdadi Jews in British Burma. Lexington Books, 2006.
Cheng, Dr Irene. Intercultural Reminiscences. Hong Kong: David C. Lam Institute for East-West Studies, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1997. These personal thoughts and memories come from an offspring of the famous (Eurasian) Hotung clan.
da Costa Morais, Isabel Maria. Creolised and Colonised: The History and Future of the Macanese and Mozambican Chinese. PhD Thesis, University of Hong Kong, 2003.
Crabb, C.H. Malaya’s Eurasians: An Opinion. Singapore: D. Moore, 1960.
Cushman, Jennifer and Wang Gungwu, eds. The Changing Identities of Chinese in Southeast Asia. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1988.
Dikotter, Frank, Lars Laaman, and Zhou Xun. Narcotic Culture, A History of Drugs in China. London: Hurst & Company, 2004.
Erni, John Nguyet and Leung Lisa Yuk-ming. Understanding South Asian Minorities in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2014.
Faure, David. Colonialism & the Hong Kong Mentality. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 2003. HK 320.95125 F26
Frost, Mark Ravinder, and Yu-Mei Balasingamchow. Singapore, A Biography. Editions Didier Millet/National Museum of Singapore, 2009. A fascinating discovery of a place through far larger spectrums of time and personalities than standard histories usually evoke. Frost explores the rich cosmopolitanism of Singapore’s past and present, providing a surprisingly rich level of new data, offering a model to other new histories.
Hao Yen-p’ing. The Commercial Revolution in 19th Century China – The Rise of Sino-Western Mercantile Capitalism. California: University of California Press, 1986.
Hao Yen-p’ing. The Comprador in 19th Century China: Bridge Between East and West. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1970.
Hoe, Susanna. Chinese Footprints, Exploring Women’s History in China, Hong Kong and Macau. Hong Kong: Roundhouse Publications (Asia), 1996.
Hyam, Ronald. Understanding the British Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Just eight Index entries refer to Hong Kong, but Hyam looks at sexuality in the empire, including here his thoughts on Concubinage and the Colonial Service (pp. 417-440), and considers the practice of imperial historians.
Hyde, Francis E. Far Eastern Trade 1860-1914. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1973.
Jasanoff, Maya. Edge of Empire: Lives, Culture and Conquest in the East 1750-1850. Vintage; Reprint September 2006. Jasanoff challenges the idea that the British Empire imposed its own culture on its colonies, arguing the empire thrived because it was able to “find ways of accommodating difference”. As evidence, she traces the history of objects collected in India and Egypt by “border-crossers”: diplomats and soldiers, “aristocrats and Grand Tourists”… profiling those who were fuelled to collect by the need for reinvention and pursuit of social status and wealth.
Kam Louie, ed. Hong Kong Culture – Word and Image. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.
Law Wing Sang. Collaborative Colonial Power – The Making of the Hong Kong Chinese. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. Chapters:
Social Fabric of Collaborative Colonialism; Cultural Coloniality, The English Language and Schooling; Pedagogy of Imperialism, Indirect Rule and HKU; Double Identity of Colonial Intelligentsia, Ho Kai; Chinese Cultural Nationalism and Southern Localism; Cultural Cold War and the Disaporic Nation; Indigenizing Colonial Power and the Return to China; Northbound Colonialism, Reinventing Hong Kong Chinese.
Lo Hsiang-Lin. Hong Kong and Western Cultures. Tokyo: East West Center Honolulu Press/The Centre for East Asian Cultural Studies Tokyo, 1963.
Lui Tai Lok and Alan Smart. ‘Learning From Civil Unrest: State/Society Relations in Hong Kong Before and After the 1967 Disturbances’. In Robert Bickers and Ray Yep, eds. May Days in Hong Kong: Riots and Emergency in 1967. Hong Kong: Hong KongUniversity Press, 2009.
Lui Tai Lok, G. Mathews, and E. Ma. Hong Kong, China: Learning to Belong to a Nation. London: Routledge, 2008.
Lui Tai Lok and Stephen Chiu. Hong Kong: Becoming a Chinese Global City. London: Routledge, 2009.
Mark, Chi-kwan. Hong Kong and the Cold War: Anglo-American Relations, 1949-1957. Oxford: Clarendon, 2004.
Markovita, Claude. The Global World of Indian Merchants 1750-1947, Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Mills, Lennox A. British Rule in Eastern Asia: A Study of Contemporary Government and Economic Development in British Malaya and Hong Kong. London: Oxford University Press, 1942.
New, Christopher. Gage Street Courtesan (fictional representation of a German/Jewish prostitute in HK’s demimonde). Hong Kong: Earnshaw Books, 2012.
O’Connor, Paul. Islam in Hong Kong, Muslims and Everyday Life in China’s World City. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2012.
Pan, Lynn. Sons of the Yellow Emperor: A History of the Chinese Diaspora. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1990.
Pan, Lynn. The Encyclopaedia of the Chinese Overseas. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1999.
Peckham, Robert. ‘Infective Economies: Empire, Panic and the Business of Disease’. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 41:2 (2013), 211-237.
ALSO: Peckham, Robert. ‘Diseasing the City: Colonial Noir and the Ruins of Modernity’. Fast Capitalism 8:1 (2011).
ALSO: Peckham, Robert. ‘Matshed Laboratory: Colonies, Cultures, and Bacteriology’. In Robert Peckham and David M. Pomfret, eds. Imperial Contagions: Medicine, Hygiene, and Cultures of Planning in Asia, Hong Kong University Press, 2013.
Riemenschnitter, Andrea and Madsen, Deborah eds. Diasporic Histories – Cultural Archives of Chinese Transnationalism. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2009. Section Headings are: Diasporic Nationalism, Historical Legacies, and, Re-storying Diaspora.
Schenkuizen, Marguerite. Memoirs of an Indo woman: Twentieth Century Life in the East Indies and Abroad. Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1993.
Siu, Helen F., ed. Merchants’ Daughters – Women, Commerce, and Regional Culture in South China. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2010.
Smart, Alan. Making Room: Squatter Clearance in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: HKU Centre of Asian Studies, 1992.
Smith, Carl T. and Paul A. Van Dyke. ‘Muslims in the Pearl River Delta 1700-1930’. Review of Culture, International Edition 10 (April 2004), 6-15.
Thompson, Virginia, and Adloff, Richard. Minority Problems in Southeast Asia. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1955. (Chapter 3: Indigenous Minorities – The Eurasians.)
Tripathi, Dwijendra, ed. Business Communities of India, A Historical Perspective. Ahmedabad: Business History Archives and Museum, 1984.
Van de Veur, Paul W. The Eurasians of Indonesia: A Political-Historical Bibliography. Ithaca: Modern Indonesia Project, Cornell University, 1971.
Van Dyke, Paul A. Merchants of Canton and Macao – Politics and Strategies in Eighteenth Century Chinese Trade. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.
Van Dyke, Paul A. The Canton Trade, Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong University Press, Published in conjunction with the Instituto Cultural do Governo da RAE de Macau, 2005.
Van Dyke, Paul A. ‘The Yan Family, Merchants of Canton 1734-1780’. Review of Culture, International Edition 9 (2004).
Wakeman, Frederic, Jr. Strangers at the Gate, Social Disorder in South China, 1839-1861. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966.
Ward, Robert. Asia for the Asiatics? The Techniques of Japanese Occupation. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1945. An American consular official, Ward witnessed the fall of Hong Kong and the imposition of the Japanese system for organizing conquered territory and peoples. Reviewed in Foreign Affairs, October 1945.
Wang Gungwu, Wong Siu-ling, et al., eds. Hong Kong in the Asia Pacific Region, Rising to New Challenges. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1997. Includes chapters from Tommy Koh, Joseph Cheng, Gordon Wu, Yusuf Wanandi and others on regional issues for Hong Kong.
Wang Gungwu, Wong Siu-ling, et al., eds. Hong Kong’s Transition: A Decade After the Deal. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1995. Includes chapters on the civil service, education, the business community, mass media and challenges to the common Law.
Wang Gungwu, Wong Siu-ling, et al., eds. Towards a New Millennium, Building on Hong Kong’s Strengths. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 1999. Includes chapters on transport, communications, democratisation, migration and the cultural kaleidoscope.
White, Barbara-Sue. Turbans and Traders – Hong Kong’s Indian Communities. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Wong Siu-lin, ed. Chinese and Indian Diasporas: Comparative Perspectives. Centre of Asian Studies, University of Hong Kong, 2004.
Yap, Felicia. ‘Creativity and the Body: Civilian Internees in British Asia during the Second World War’. In G. Carr and H. Mytum, eds. Cultural Heritage and Prisoners of War: Creativity Behind Barbed Wire. New York: Routledge, 2012.
READING RELATED SPECIFICALLY TO ARMENIANS:
Aslanian, Sebouh. From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean, The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfra. California: University of California Press, 2011.
Hovannisian, Richard, ed. Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times. New York: Palgrave MacMillan 2004.
Vol. I – The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the 14th Century
Vol. II – Foreign Dominion to Statehood: the 15th to the 20th Century
Libaridian, Gerard J. Modern Armenia, People Nation State. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2004.
Payaslian, Simon. The History of Armenia from the Origins to the Present. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Redgate, Anne Elizabeth. The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
Seth, Mesrovb Jacob. Armenians in India from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, AWork of Original Research. New Delhi/Madras: Asian Educational Services, 1992.
Sergoyan, E.G. The Gathering Place, Stories from the Armenian Social Club in Old Shanghai. Seattle: Coffeetown Press, 2012.
Smith, Carl T. ‘An Eighteenth Century Macao Armenian Merchant Prince’. Review of Culture, International Edition 6 (2003).
Smith, Carl T., and Paul A. Van Dyke. ‘Armenian Footprints in Macau’. Review of Culture, International Edition 8 (2003), 20-39.
Smith, Carl T., and Paul A. Van Dyke. ‘Four Armenian Families’. Review of Culture, International Edition 8 (2003): 40-50.
Smith, Carl T. ‘Parsee Merchants in the Pearl River Delta’. Review of Culture, International Edition 10 (2004).
Thampi, Madhavi. ‘Parsees in the China Trade’. Review of Culture, International Edition 10 (2004).
Wright, Nadia H. Respected Citizens, The History of Armenians in Singapore and Malaysia. Victoria, Australia: Amassia Publishing, 2003. A fantastically detailed account of how and why Armenians got to and settled in malaysia and Singapore, who they were (from individuals to multi-generational clans), what they did, how they worshipped, and where, from Penang to Singapore’s Orchard Road. The Historical Overview starts in 1819 and runs into the 21st century. Familiar names such as the Sarkies and Apcar are detailed, along with all the myriad, inter-related enterprises, to less familiar names such as Mackertoom Galastaun.
READING RELATED SPECIFICALLY TO PARSEES:
Guo Deyan. ‘The Study of Parsee Merchants in Canton, Hong Kong and Macao’. Review of Culture, International Edition 8 (2003).
Kulke, Eckehard. The Parsees in India, A Minority as Agent of Social Change. Uttar Pradesh: Vikas Publishing House, 1974.
Tripathi, Dwijendra, ed. Business Communities of India, A Historical Perspective. New Delhi: Manohar, 1984.
READING RELATED SPECIFICALLY TO MACAO:
Coates, Austin. Macao and the British 1637-1842 – Prelude to Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, Reprint in the ‘Echoes: Classics of Hong Kong Culture and History’ series, 1966, 2009.
Coates, Austin. A Macao Narrative. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, Reprint in the ‘Echoes: Classics of Hong Kong Culture and History’ series, 1978, 2009.
Gunn, Geoffrey C. Encountering Macau – A Portuguese City-State on the Periphery of China 1557-1999. Westview Press, 1996.
Ljungstedt, Anders. An Historical Sketch of the Portuguese Settlements in China and of the Roman Catholic Church and Mission in China & Description of the City of Canton. (1st ed Boston: James Munroe & Co, 1836) Hong Kong: Viking Hong Kong Publications, 1992.
McGivering, Jill. Macao Remembers. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Pittis, Donald and Susan J. Henders, eds. Macao: Mysterious Decay and Romance, An Anthology. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Ride, Lindsay and May. The Voices of Macao Stones. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1999.
ALSO: Ride, Lindsay and May. Edited by Bernard Mellor. An East India Company Cemetery, Protestant Burials in Macao. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1996.
Silva, Frederic A. (Jim). Things I Remember. San Francisco, 1999.
Silva, Frederic A. (Jim). Todo O Nosso Passado – All Our Yesterdays – The Sons of Macao, Their History and Heritage. (1st ed UMA Inc of California, 1979). Macau: Livros do Oriente, 1996.
Yap, Felicia. ‘Portuguese Communities in East and Southeast Asia’. In L. Jarnagin, ed. Portuguese and Luso-Asian Legacies in Southeast Asia, 1511-2011: The Making of the Luso-Asian World: Intricacies of Engagement Vol. 1, 2011.
ARTICLES RELATING TO EURASIANS IN HONG KONG, via JSTOR:
This list highlights several points: there is a rich trove of literature on Indonesian Eurasians, on American Chinese, overseas Chinese, and inter-marriage between ethnicities in Singapore (and Malaysia). Separately of course, “Eurasia” has specific geographical, archeological, geological meaning in the land links between China and Europe (the “Stans”, the Steppe etc). And there has been a Russian debate on what it calls Eurasians, a specific outgrowth of the 1917 revolution and evolving ideologies of Russianness. There is, however, no single article in these lists about Hong Kong’s Eurasians!
Archer, Louise, Becky Francis, and Ada Mau. ‘The Culture Project: Diasporic Negotiations of Ethnicity, Identity and Culture Among Teachers, Pupils and Parents in Chinese Language Schools’. Oxford Review of Education 36:4 (2010), 407-426.
Carstens, Sharon. ‘Dancing Lions and Disappearing History: The National Culture Debates and Chinese Malaysian Culture’. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 13:1 (1999), 11-63.
Christopher, A. J. ‘Urban Segregation Levels in the British Overseas Empire and Its Successors, in the Twentieth Century’. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers New Series, 17:1 (1992), 95-107.
Daniels, Ronald J. and Michael J. Trebilcock, and Lindsey D. Carson. ‘The Legacy of Empire: The Common Law Inheritance and Commitments to Legality in Former British Colonies’. American Journal of Comparative Law 59:1 (2011), 111-178.
Dwyer, D. J. ‘Hong Kong: Victorian Colony: Review.’ Geographical Journal 138:4 (1972), 491-494.
Reviews Hong Kong: The Industrial Colony by Keith Hopkins.
Ghosh, Durba. ‘The British Empire: Themes and Perspectives, edited by Sarah Stockwell; Burden or Benefit?: Imperial Benevolence and Its Legacies, edited by Helen Gilbert and Chris Tiffin’ [Review]. Victorian Studies 52:1 (2009), 122-125.
Goh, Daniel P.S. ‘Unofficial Contentions: The Postcoloniality of Straits Chinese Political Discourse in the Straits Settlements Legislative Council’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 41:3 (2010), 483-507.
Hook, Brian, and Miguel Santos Neves. ‘The Role of Hong Kong and Macau in China’s Relations with Europe’. China Quarterly 169, Special Issue: China and Europe since 1978: A European Perspective (2002), 108-135.
Jackson, Ashley. ‘Review: Empire and beyond: The Pursuit of Overseas National Interests in the Late Twentieth Century’. English Historical Review 122:499 (2007), 1350-1366.
Works Reviewed: The British Empire in the 1950s: Retreat or Revival? by Martin Lynn; Britain’s Declining Empire: The Road to Decolonization, 1918-1968 by Ronald Hyam; At the End of the Line: Colonial Policing and the Imperial Endgame, 1945-80 by Georgina Sinclair; The Blood Never Dried: A People’s History of the British Empire by John Newsinger; Forgotten Wars: The End of Britain’s Asian Empire by Christopher Bayly; Tim Harper
Katyal, Kokila Roy, and Mark King. ‘”Outsiderness” and “Insiderness” in a Confucian Society: Complexity of Contexts’. Comparative Education 47:3 Special Issue (42): Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures (2011), 327-341.
Kennedy, Kerry J., and Ming Tak Hue. ‘Researching Ethnic Minority Students in a Chinese Context: Mixed Methods Design for Cross Cultural Understandings’. Comparative Education 47:3 Special Issue (42): Educational Research in Confucian Heritage Cultures (2011), 343-354.
Kuo, Huei-Ying. ‘Agency amid Incorporation: Chinese Business Networks in Hong Kong and Singapore and the Colonial Origins of the Resurgence of East Asia, 1800-1940’. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 32:3 (2009), 211-237.
Li, F. L. N., A. J. Jowett, A. M. Findlay, and R. Skeldon. ‘Discourse on Migration and Ethnic Identity: Interviews with Professionals in Hong Kong’.Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20:3 (1995), 342-356.
Li Minghuan. ‘From “Sons of the Yellow Emperor” to “Children of Indonesian Soil”: Studying Peranakan Chinese Based on the Batavia Kong Koan Archives’. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 34:2 (2003), 215-230.
Quayum, Mohammad A. ‘”My Country” / “Our Country”: Race Dynamics and Contesting Nationalisms in Lloyd Fernando’s “Green is the Colour” and Shirley Geok-lin Lim’s “Joss and Gold”‘. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 18:2 (2007), 65-89.
Strassler, Karen. ‘Cosmopolitan Visions: Ethnic Chinese and the Photographic Imagining of Indonesia in the Late Colonial and Early Postcolonial Periods’. Journal of Asian Studies 67:2 (2008), 395-432.
Tilly, Charles. ‘Cities, states, and Trust Networks: Chapter 1 of Cities and States in World History’.Theory and Society 39:3/4, Special Issue in Memory of Charles Tilly (1929–2008): Cities, States, Trust, and Rule (2010), 265-280.
van der Veur, Paul W. ‘Being “Dutch” in the Indies: A History of Creolisation and Empire, 1500-1920 by Ulbe Bosma; Remco Raben; Wendie Shaffer; De Geschiedenis van Indische Nederlanders by Ulbe Bosma; Remco Raben; Wim Willems’ [Review]. Indonesia 86 (2008), 187-190.