By Vaudine England
A basic understanding of British imperialism, Chinese history and the birth of Hong Kong offers only a monochrome understanding of this former colony, now global city under Chinese sovereignty. If one has not read any general history of the British empire, it might be thought that all colonies were the same, that a coherent policy and plan emanated from London to organize and administer territories from New Zealand, through Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements to Burma, India, Bermuda, Aden and beyond. Without knowing Chinese history, it would be easy to assume Hong Kong existed under past dynasties as much as more northern or inland Chinese cities did. Neither set of assumptions would be safe.
The larger questions about how it was that Europeans – in this case, British – people could reach to the other side of the world, impose their will on China, and establish a Crown Colony would also remain unanswered. It was not until reading in the field now known as World or Global History that many of these issues became clearer, and a new context for understanding Hong Kong emerged. It is important to follow early trade routes and the transfer of people and ideas between the world’s vast and vastly different civilizations, starting with the work of Abu-Lughod, mentioned below. From there one can travel intellectually through Hopkins, Bayly, Bentley and Osterhammel, before honing in closer to the Hong Kong region with the help of Bickers and Harper.
From this reading, it becomes clear that Hong Kong is the product of far greater forces at work than merely the British victories in the so-called Opium Wars. Placing Hong Kong’s development in a global context is one answer to the schism between current Chinese state orthodoxies and outdated colonial visions. It also helps to understand the variety of peoples who have made Hong Kong their home, by considering Hong Kong not merely as a lonely Chinese land stolen by scottish drug-traders, but as a way-station on the routes of globalization over centuries. From this comes the sense of studying Hong Kong as having not only a past of Chinese victimhood or British aggression, but a Cosmopolitan past. It also helps explain why the post-colonial present is so very cosmopolitan too.
But what is the meaning of Cosmopolitan? A rich debate exists, of course, on the varied meanings of plural, pluralist, integrated, interactive, mixed, and cosmopolitan. Some scholars have introduced words like Cosmopolitics, or argued about whether nationality is dead in a new borderless world.
For our purposes, the Cosmopolitan Past refers to the time when a lot more mixing of races and communities took place, at least in business and through certain associations, than is commonly assumed in superficial colonial histories. It is part of a re-definition of early globalizations. In Hong Kong, this is more clearly seen in its earlier decades, before nationalist notions of (racial) exclusion took precedence in the later nineteenth and early twentieth century. When Hong Kong was founded through international trade, for example, the second largest group of first settlers were Parsees who came directly from Canton. The first Moslem traders were seen in Canton in the 900s. Today’s South Asians in Hong Kong have a lower status and sense of possibility than some of their forebears did. At the same time, past groups of Armenians, Jews and Parsees all contributed to the mixed nature of Hong Kong society.
The majority population was always Chinese but never, since 1841, solely so. Even within the first generation of international settlement in Hong Kong, a new kind of indigene was being formed, by the intimate mixing between Chinese and others which produced new generations of multi-racial people. Hong Kong’s unique development over succeeding decades has also produced multi-cultural people of many races, all of them identifying with Hong Kong – not China or Britain. Although the term Eurasian offers a myriad of definitional pitfalls, Hong Kong was also brought into being by Chinese-Parsee offspring, Armenian-Scottish, British-Chinese of all kinds, and many more exotic mixtures. These people are the product of Hong Kong’s cosmopolitan past, something without which, today’s Hong Kong cannot be imagined.
PRIORITY READING SUGGESTIONS:
Abu-Lughod, Janet L. Before European Hegemony, The World System AD 1250-1350. New York, Oxford UK: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Anderson, Benedict. The Spectre of Comparisons: Nationalism, Southeast Asia, and the World. London and New York: Verso, 1998.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Rev. ed. London: Verso Books, 1991.
Bayly, C.A. The Birth of the Modern World 1780-1914. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2004. This book revolutionized my thinking and that of many others. Its discussions of ancient globalisation led me to the other sources listed below. Those with the appetite can go from this to:
Bentley, Jerry. Old World Encounters: Cross Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Abstract: Well before modern times, Asian, African, and European peoples were regularly interacting and intermingling with each other. Their encounters rank among the most effective agents of change in all of world history, fostering the spread of technologies, ideas, beliefs, values and religions. This innovative study examines processes of cross-cultural encounter before 1492, from the age of the ancient silk roads that linked China with the Roman Empire, through the Mongol Empire, up until the early transoceanic ventures of Europeans during the fifteenth century. Taking a global rather than a Eurocentric approach, Bentley elucidates the larger historical context of encounters between Europeans and other peoples in modern times.
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign devils in the Qing empire, 1832-1914. London: Allen Lane, 2011 (and Penguin 2012).
Bickers, Robert. The Boxers, China, and the World. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007.
Hopkins, A.G. Editor. Globalization in World History. London: Pimlico, 2002. This important collection introduces an Agenda for Historians and a discussion of the Globalization of History; Hopkins considers globalization with and without empires. Bayly then outlines thought on ‘Archaic’ and ‘Modern’ globalizations. Other chapters tackle Muslim Universalism and Western Globalization (Amira Bennison), the use of slaves in empires (Richard Drayton), knowledge and culture in empires (Tony Ballantyne), Diaspora and languages of globalism (Tim Harper), the Onrush of Modern Globalization in China (Hans Van de Ven), globalization in Africa (John Lonsdale) and in America (David Reynolds).
Osterhammel, Jurgen. The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century. Trans. Patrick Camiller. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.
Osterhammel, Jurgen. Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview. Trans. Shelley L. Frisch. Princeton: Marcus Wiener, 1997.
Parthasarathi, Prasannan. Why Europe Grew Rich and Asia Did Not, Global Economic Divergence 1600-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. A recent riposte to Pomeranz:
Pomeranz, Kenneth. The Great Divergence, China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000. Why did Europe colonize Asia and not the other way around, and, how is it that Europe surged ahead of the rest?
Said, Edward. Orientalism: Western Conceptions of the Orient. New York: Pantheon, 1978.
Wang Gungwu, ed. Global History and Migrations. Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.
Wesseling, Henk, ed. Imperialism and Colonialism. Essays on the History of European Expansion. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Wesseling, Henk. A Cape of Asia, Essays on European History. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 2011.
Wesseling, H.L., ed. Expansion and Reaction. Leiden: Leiden University Press, 1978. This earlier examination of European expansion into Asia and Africa (including a contribution from Ferdinand Braudel) explains how historians have moved on from strictly ‘colonial’ history to a better understanding of the broad parry and thrust of history. Events ‘abroad’ used to be seen solely through the lens of the ‘mother country’; now it was time to hear from the other side and examine the interactions back and forth too. Not only must imperial centres accept a pre-colonial reality, so must those colonised admit their own histories.
OTHER READING SUGGESTIONS:
Amrith, Sunil S. Migration and Diaspora in Modern Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verson, 1991.
Bayly, C. A. Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India 1780-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Bayly, C.A. Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780-1830. London: Longman, 1989.
Bickers, Robert. Picturing China 1870-1950: Photographs from Bristol Collections. Chinese Maritime Customs project Occasional Papers No. 1, 2007, with Catherine Ladds, Jamie Carstairs and Yee Wah Foo.
Bickers, Robert. Missionary Encounters: Sources and Issues. London: Curzon Press, 1996.
Bickers, Robert. Ritual and Diplomacy: the Macartney Mission to China 1792-1794. London: Wellsweep/British Association for Chinese Studies, 1992.
Bose, Sugata and Kris Manjapra, editors. Cosmopolitan Thought Zones, South Asia and the Global circulation of Ideas. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Campbell, Persia Crawford. Chinese Coolie Emigration to Countries within the British Empire. 1923, reprint London: Frank Cass, 1971.
Cannadine, David. The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990.
Cannadine, David. Ornamentalism: How the British Saw Their Empire. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Canny, Nicholas P. Europeans on the Move: Studies on European Migration 1500-1800. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. CONTENTS:
Introduction: Europeans on the Move 1500-1800
Part 1 The Early Experiences
Part 2 The Medieval Background by Seymour Phillips
Part 3 The First Transatlantic Transfer: Spanish Migration to the New World 1493-1810 by Nicolas Sanchez-Albornoz
Migration from the Three Kingdoms: England, Scotland and Ireland
Part 4 English Migration into and across the Atlantic 17th & 18th Centuries
Part 5 Scottish Emigration in 17th & 18th Centuries
Part 6 Irish Diaspora of 17th & 18th Centuries
Continental European Migration: The Netherlands, Germany, France
Part 7 The Netherlands, the Dutch and Long-Distance Migration in the Late 16th to early 19th Centuries by Jan Lucassen
Part 8 Transatlantic Migration from the German-speaking parts of Central Europe 1600-1800: Proportions, Structures, Explanations by G. Fertig
Part 9 Manon’s Fellow Exiles: Emigration from France to North America before 1763 by Peter Mook
Part 10 In Search of a Better Home? European Overseas Migration 1500-1800 by Nicholas Canny.
Chan Kwok-bun, ed. Hybrid Hong Kong. London: Routledge 2012.
Cheah, Pheng. Spectral Nationality, Passages of Freedom from Kant to Postcolonial Literatures of Liberation. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Cheah, Pheng and Bruce Robbins, eds. Cosmopolitics, Thinking and Feeling Beyond the Nation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.
Chiu, Stephen and Tai-Lok Lui. Hong Kong, Becoming a Chinese Global City. London: Routledge, 2009.
Cohen, Robin. Global Diasporas, An Introduction. London/New York: Routledge, 2008. Abstract: This book investigates the changing meanings of the concept and the contemporary diasporic condition, including case studies of Jewish, Armenian, African, Chinese, British, Indian, Lebanese and Caribbean people. The first edition of this book had a major impact on diaspora studies and was the foundational text in an emerging research and teaching field. This second edition extends and clarifies Robin Cohen’s argument, addresses some critiques and outlines new perspectives for the study of diasporas.
1. Four Phases of Diaspora Studies
2. Classical Notions of Diaspora
3. Victim Diasporas
4. Labour and Imperial Diasporas – Indentured Indians and the British
5. Trade and Business Diasporas – Chinese and Lebanese
6. Diasporas and their Homelands – Zionists and Sikhs
7. Deterritorialized Diasporas – The Black Atlantic and the Lure of Bombay
8. Mobilizing Diasporas in a Global Age
9. Studying Diasporas – Old Methods and New Topics
Cohen, Robin. ‘Back to the Future: From Metropolis to Cosmopolis’. In Jan Hjarn, ed., From Metropolis to Cosmopolis. Esbjerg: South Jutland University Press, 1999, 9–26.
Cohen, Robin, and Steven Vertovec, eds. Conceiving Cosmopolitanism: Theory, Context and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Cohen, Robin. ‘”Diaspora”: Changing Meanings and Limits of the Concept’. In John LaGuerre, ed., Calcutta to Caroni and the Indian Diaspora Trinidad: Publisher? 2006/7?.
Culler, Jonathan and Pheng Cheah, eds. Grounds of Comparison, Around the Work of Benedict Anderson. New York and London: Routledge, 2003.
Darwin, John. The Empire Project, The Rise and Fall of the British World System 1830-1970. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Darwin, John. Unfinished Empire, The Global Expansion of Britain. London: Penguin, 2012.
Darwin, John. After Tamerlane, The Rise and Fall of Global Empires 1400-2000. London: Penguin, 2007.
Disney, Anthony and Emily Booth, eds. Vasco Da Gama and the Linking of Europe and Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 – includes:
– The Indian Ocean in World History
– Soldiers, Diamonds and Jesuits: Flemings and Dutchmen in Portuguese India (1505-90)
– The Portuguese in the Far East 1540-1640
– Camphor in East and Southeast Asian Trade, c1500
– Five Centuries, Five Modalities: European Interaction with Southeast Asia
– Goa-Macao-Beijing: The Jesuits and Portugal’s China Connection
– For God, King & Mammon: The Portuguese Outside of Empire 1480-1580
– From the West to the East: the Return of the Printed Word
– Portuguese as Seen by the Historians of the Qing Court
– Was There a Vasco da Gama Epoch? Recent Historiography
– Divesting a Myth: 17th century Dutch-Portuguese Rivalry in the Far East
– Portuguese Presence in British Bombay 1660-1860
– Portuguese Timor on the Eve of the Pacific War
– Vasco da Gama and the Later Portuguese Colonial Presence in India
– Faction, Administrative Control and the Failure of the Portuguese India Company, 1628-33.
Duara, Prasenjit. Asia Redux, Conceptualising a Region for Our Times. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asia Studies, 2013.
Emmer, P.C., and H.L. Wesseling. Reappraisals in Overseas History – Essays on Post-War Historiography About European Expansion. Leiden: Comparative Studies in Overseas History, Leiden Centre for the History of European Expansion, 1979.
Cannadine, David. Ornamentalism, How the British Saw Their Empire. London: Allen Lane, 2001.
Goody, Jack. The Eurasian Miracle. Polity Press, 2010.
Gunn, Geoffrey, C. History Without Borders – The Making of an Asian World Region 1000-1800. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2011.
Hamilton, Gary G., ed. Cosmopolitan Capitalists, Hong Kong and the Chinese Diaspora at the End of the 20th Century. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1999. Topics include:
– Hong Kong and the Rise of Capitalism in Asia
– Overseas Migration in the 19th Century by Edgar Wickberg
– Chinese Cities by William Skinner
– China and the World-Hong Kong’s Economy by Barry Naughton
– Hong Kong-Cultural Kaleidoscope on a World Landscape by Helen Siu
– Chineseness-The Dilemmas of Place and Practice by Wang Gungwu
– Deciding to Stay/Move/Not to Decide by Wong Siu-Lun
– Hong Kong Immigration and Democracy, Vancouver by Katharyne Mitchell
– From Colonial Rule to One Country Two Systems by Rosanna Yick-Ming Wong
Harper, Tim and Sunil Amrith, editors. Sites of Asian Interaction – Ideas, Networks and Mobility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. Chapters include:
1. Singapore, 1915, and the Birth of the Asian Underground by Tim Harper
2. Living in the Material World: Cosmopolitanism and Trade in Early Twentieth Century Ladakh by Josephine H. Fewkes
3. Nation, Race, and Language: Discussing Transnational Identities in Colonial Singapore, circa 1930 by Chua Ai Lin
4. Intimate Interactions: Eurasian Family Histories in Colonial Penang by Kirsty Walker
5. Citing as a Site: Translation and Circulation in Muslim South and Southeast Asia by Ronit Ricci
6. Popular Sites of Prayer, Transoceanic Migration, and Cultural Diversity: Exploring the significance of keramat in Southeast Asia by Sumit K. Mandal
7. Connecting People: A Central Asian Sufi network in turn-of-the-century Istanbul by Lale Can
8. ‘Enough of the Great Napoleons!’ Raja Mahendra Pratap’s Pan-Asian Projects (1929-1939) by Carolien Stolte
9. Chinatowns and Borderlands: Inter-Asian Encounters in the Diaspora by Evelyn Hu-DeHart
10. Creating Spaces for Asian Interaction through the Anti-Globalisation Campaigns in the Region by Teresa S. Encarnacion Tadem
Kwarteng, Kwasi. Ghosts of Empire, Britain’s Legacies in the Modern World. London: Bloomsbury, 2011.
Lucassen, Jan and Leo Lucassen. The Mobility Transition in Europe Revisited 1500-1900, Sources and Methods. Amsterdam: International Institute of Social History, 2010.
Lucassen, Jan, Leo Lucassen and Patrick Manning, eds. Migration History in World History. Multidisciplinary approaches. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2010.
Lucassen, Leo. ‘Where Do We Go from Here? New Perspectives on Global Migration History’. International Review of Social History 49 (2004), 505-510.
Lui Tai-Lok and Stephen Chiu. ‘Becoming a Chinese Global City: Hong Kong (and Shanghai) Beyond the Global-Local Duality’. In Xiangming Chen,ed., Shanghai Rising: State Power and Local Transformations in a Global Megacity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009 .
Lui Tai-Lok and Stephen Chiu. Hong Kong: Becoming a Chinese Global City. London: Routledge, 2009.
McDonogh, Gary and Wong, Cindy. Global Hong Kong. London: Routledge 2005.
Meter, David R. Hong Kong as a Global Metropolis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2000.
Milward, Peter, ed. The Mutual Encounters of East and West 1492-1992. Proceedings of International Conference, Sept 1992, at The Renaissance Institute, Sophia University, Tokyo, Japan.
Nicolson, Adam. Gentry – Six Hundred Years of a Peculiarly English Class. London: HarperCollins, 2011.
Richards, Thomas. The Imperial Archive: Knowledge and the Fantasy of Empire. London: Verson, 1993.
Robinson, Ronald. ‘Non-European Foundations of European Imperialism: Sketch for a Theory of Collaboration’. In Roger Owen and Bob Sutcliffe, eds., Studies in the Theory of Imperialism. New York: Longman, 1972.
Ross, Robert and Gerald J. Telkamp, eds. Colonial Cities: Essays on Urbanism in a Colonial Context. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, for Leiden University Press, 1985.
Rothschild, Emma. The Inner Life of Empires, an Eighteenth Century History. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
Stavrianos, L.S. The World to 1500, A Global History. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1970.
Wilson, A.N. The Victorians. London: Arrow Books, 2003.
Westad, Arne. Restless Empire: China and the World since 1750. Vintage, 2014.
Westad, Arne. The Global Cold War: Third World Interventions and the Making of Our Times. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Vertovec, Steven and Robin Cohen. Conceiving Cosmopolitanism, Theory, Context and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002.
To further understand the global context of Hong Kong, here are some selections from the Journal of World History:
VOL 1 NO 1 SPRING 1990
– A New Forum for Global History by Jerry H Bentley
– ‘The Rise of the West’ After 25 Years by William H McNeill
– Colonialism Revisited: Recent Historiography by Robert van Niel
VOL 4 NO 1 SPRING 1993
– The Unity and Disunity of Indian Ocean History from the Rise of Islam to 1750: The Outline of a Theory and Historical Discourse by K N Chaudhuri
VOL 4 NO 2 FALL 1993
– Treaties and Friendships: British Imperialism, the Ottoman Empire, and China in the Nineteenth Century by Resat Kasaba
VOL 6 NO 1 SPRING 1995
– Muslims and Hindus in the Culture and Morphology of Quangzhou from the 10th to the 13th Century by Hugh R Clark
VOL 6 NO 2 FALL 1995
– Marshall G.S. Hodgson and the Hemispheric Interregional Approach to World History by Edmund Burke
VOL 7 NO 2 FALL 1996
– From the World-Systems Perspective to Institutional World History: Culture and Economy in Global Theory by Lauren Benton
VOL 8 NO 1 SPRING 1997
– Nationalisms: An Invitation to Comparative Analysis by Peter Stearns
VOL 8 NO 2 FALL 1997
– Toward a Comparative History of Borderlands by Michiel Baud and Willem van Schendel
VOL 9 NO 2 FALL 1998
– World History and the Rise and Fall of the West by William McNeill
– Hemispheric Integration 500-1500 by Jerry Bentley
VOL 10 NO 1 SPRING 1999
– State Formation and Periodization in Inner Asian History by Nicola di Cosmo
– The Military Superiority Thesis and the Ascendancy of Western Eurasia in the World System by William R. Thompson
VOL 10 NO 2 FALL 1999
Was It Pluck or Luck that Made the West Grow Rich? by David Buck – in which he reviews three books:
– ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age by Andre Gunder Frank
– The Wealth and Poverty of Nations, Why Some are so Rich and Some so Poor by David Landes
– China Transformed, Historical Change and the Limits of the European Experience by R Bin Wong
VOL 11 NO 1 SPRING 2000
FORUM: Debate on ‘The Myth of Continents’:
– Third Worldism or Globalism? Reply to James M Balut’s Review of ‘The Myth of Continents’ by Martin Lewis and Karen Wigen
– On Myths and Maps: A Rejoinder to Lewis and Wigen by James M. Blaut
VOL 11 NO 2 FALL 2000
Trade and State in the Arabian Seas: A Survey from the 15th to the 18th Century by R J Barendse of Leiden
VOL 12 NO 2 FALL 2001
Are Coal and Colonies Really Crucial? Kenneth Pomeranz and the Great Divergence by P.HH. Vries
VOL 13 NO 1 SPRING 2002
– Tamerlane’s Career and Its Uses by Beatrice Forbes Manz
– Governing Growth: A Comparative Analysis of the Role of the State and the Rise of the West by P.H.H. Vries
VOL 13 NO 2 FALL 2002
– Efflorescences and Economic Growth in World History: Rethinking the ‘Rise of the West’ and the Industrial Revolution by Jack Goldstone
– Pestis Redux: The Initial Years of the Third Bubonic Plague Pandemic 1894-1901 by Myron Echenberg
-Is Humpty Dumpty Back Together Again?: The Revival of Imperial History and the ‘Oxford History of the British Empire’ by Douglas M Peers
VOL 14 NO 2 JUNE 2003
– Indian Convict Workers in Southeast Asia in the Late 18th and Early 19th Centuries by Anand Yang
VOL 14 NO 3 SEPTEMBER 2003
– Encountering the World: China and Its Other(s) in Historical Narratives 1949-1989 by Q. Edward Wang
VOL 15 NO 1 MARCH 2004
– Becoming Van Minh: Civilizational Discourse and Visions of the Self in 20th Century Vietnam by Mark Philip Bradley
VOL 15 NO 2 JUNE 2004
– Global Migration 1846-1940 by Adam McKeown
– How Not to (Re)Write History: Gavin Menzies and the Chinese Discovery of America by Robert Finlay
VOL 15 NO 3 SEPTEMBER 2004
– Horses, Silver and Cowries: Yunnan in Global Perspective by Bin Yang
VOL 15 NO 4 DECEMBER 2004
– International Law and State Transformation in China, Siam and the Ottoman Empire during the 19th Century by Richard Horowitz
VOL 16 NO 1 MARCH 2005
– The Ethics of World History by Charles W. Hedrick, Jr.
– Myths, Wagers, and Some Moral Implications of World History byJerry H. Bentley
– Universal History: Sizing up Humanity in Big History by Andre Gunder Frank
VOL 16 NO 3 SEPTEMBER 2005
– Globalization an the Great Convergence: Rethinking World History in the Long Term by David Northrup
VOL 17 NO 2 JUNE 2006
– American Missionaries and the opium Trade in 19th Century China by Michael C Lazich
VOL 17 NO 4 DECEMBER 2006
– Littoral Society: The Concept and the Problems – maritime history by Michael N Pearson
– The Rise and Fall of Dutch Taiwan, 1624-1662: Cooperative Colonization and the Statist Model of European Expansion by Tonio Andrade
VOL 18 NO 1 MARCH 2007
– Social History and World History: Prospects for Collaboration by Peter N. Stearns
– World History and the History of Women, Gender and Sexuality by Merry Wiesner-Hanks
– Social History and World History: From Daily Life to Patterns of Change by Kenneth Pomeranz
VOL 18 NO 2 JUNE 2007
– Globalization, Cosmopolitanism and the Donme in Ottoman Salonica and Turkish Istanbul by Marc Baer
– Globalization, Architecture and Town Planning in a Colonial City, the Case of Jaffa and Tel Aviv by Mark LeVine
– Is Global Shanghai ‘Good to Think’? Thoughts on Comparative History and Post-Socialist Cities by Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom
VOL 18 NO 3 SEPTEMBER 2007
– Reconstructing World History in the People’s Republic of China since the 1980s by Luo Xu
VOL 18 NO 4 DECEMBER 2007
FORUM: Debating the World History Project:
– World History as Ecumenical History? by Dominic Sachsenmaier
– The Problematic Authority of (World) History by Heather Sutherland